Amid the incessant hustle and bustle of maritime ports, a growing concern shadows the daily operations: air pollution. Ocean-going vessels, harbor craft, and cargo handling equipment are significant contributors to air pollution in and around ports. As the world becomes more aware and concerned about climate change and environmental conservation, industries across the board are tasked with finding innovative, cleaner solutions for their operations. One potential beacon of hope gleams in the form of hydrogen fuel cells, a technology with a promising track record in various sectors, including emergency backup systems and vehicles. Could this be the solution to curb maritime emissions effectively?
To answer this question, we take you to the Young Brothers Ltd. (YB) wharf at Honolulu Harbor, where an ambitious project sought to exploit the potential of hydrogen fuel cells to reduce port emissions and increase efficiency. Here, barges sail regularly to and from neighboring islands, with containerized diesel generators supplying power to refrigerated containers or ‘reefers.’ Given the inherent energy efficiency of hydrogen fuel cells, replacing these diesel generators presented a promising opportunity for emission and cost reduction.
A partnership comprising the Department of Energy (DOE), Hydrogenics, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories, and others, culminated in the development of a maritime hydrogen fuel cell generator. The 20-foot ISO standard “hi-cube” shipping container housed the proton exchange membrane fuel cell rack, power inverter, ultracapacitors for short-term transient loading, cooling system, and hydrogen storage. With a power rating of 100 kW, it could efficiently power up to 10 reefers at once.
Navigating the uncharted waters of maritime hydrogen fuel cell utilization called for rigorous safety and compliance checks. The US Coast Guard, American Bureau of Shipping, and the Hydrogen Safety Panel meticulously reviewed the generator design, ensuring its safe use in the port environment. The collaboration also served to expose many regulatory entities to the specifics of hydrogen and fuel cell technology for the first time.
The hydrogen fuel cell generator began operation in August 2015, initially plagued by some technical hitches that were promptly rectified. Throughout its operational period till June 2016, the generator was used on 52 different days for a total of 278 hours. It generated a total energy output of 7,285 kWh, achieving a continuous peak power of 91.3 kW. Notably, it outperformed a comparable diesel generator in efficiency across various load ranges and produced zero emissions at the point of use.
However, the demonstration also spotlighted several areas for improvement. Start-up inconsistencies, higher-than-anticipated consumption of deionized water, and the need for a dedicated operator due to technical issues all posed challenges. These lessons are being used to improve next-generation products, a testament to the process of iterative innovation.
Despite these challenges, the potential economic advantages of hydrogen fuel cells cannot be overlooked. Current diesel equipment and fuel costs are on the rise due to stricter emission regulations and cleaner fuel requirements. Although the capital cost of the hydrogen fuel cell system is currently higher than comparable diesel generators, significant strides in technology and economies of scale may soon bridge this gap.
This ground-breaking project in Honolulu Harbor shows that hydrogen fuel cells have the potential to revolutionize maritime ports’ energy systems, making them cleaner and more efficient. Beyond providing cleaner power for reefers, other potential applications include powering port equipment, providing electrical resiliency against grid outages, and even vessel propulsion power.
Moreover, the project set a precedent for regulatory compliance, demonstrating that fuel cell generators can be used safely in a maritime environment. By overcoming technological and regulatory hurdles, this first-of-its-kind project has not only lowered the business risk for future adopters but also paved the way for a sustainable maritime future.
The journey of the hydrogen fuel cell generator during this project is worth exploring. The 100 kW, 240 VAC 3-phase generator, designed by Hydrogenics, was a comprehensive system comprising a proton exchange membrane fuel cell rack, power inverter, ultracapacitors for short-term transient loading, cooling system, hydrogen storage, and data acquisition equipment. It was designed to be robust and reliable, suitable for the challenging environment of maritime ports.
The generator saw its initial operation in August 2015. Although the commissioning process revealed some technical issues, these were promptly resolved, enabling Young Brothers to fully utilize the system. The hydrogen fuel was supplied by Hickam Air Force Base and the entire fueling process was smooth, involving a journey of approximately seven miles to and from the base.
Between August 2015 and June 2016, the generator was used by Young Brothers for 52 days, totaling 278 hours of operation. Its efficiency was commendable, producing 7,285 kWhr with an energy efficiency ranging from 36% to 54% depending on the load. Compared to the conventional diesel generators used previously, the hydrogen fuel cell generator displaced 865 gallons of diesel fuel and over 16 MT of CO2 emissions, providing an environmentally friendly alternative without compromising power output.
However, the deployment of this new technology was not without its challenges. The generator’s startup process proved inconsistent, attributed to a communication problem between the system controller, inverter, and fuel cell rack. Although these technical issues posed an inconvenience, they also offered valuable lessons for future deployments and served as an opportunity to refine the technology. No safety-related incidents were reported, underscoring the system’s reliability and robustness.
From an economic perspective, the use of hydrogen fuel cells in maritime ports is gaining viability. Though the current capital cost of the hydrogen fuel cell generator is higher than that of diesel generators, projections show that cost reductions in fuel cells and hydrogen, coupled with rising diesel costs, will make this an increasingly competitive option. The demonstration project provided a valuable real-world experience that will inform future cost and efficiency improvements.
Looking ahead, the success of this project indicates that hydrogen fuel cells can play a significant role in reducing emissions not just in the maritime sector, but in other industrial environments as well. From powering port equipment and refrigerated containers to offering backup power for vessels and potentially even main propulsion power, the range of applications is broad. The project also underscores the potential of a port to act as a local hydrogen infrastructure hub that could serve regional transportation needs.
In conclusion, the project carried out at the Young Brothers Ltd. wharf in Honolulu Harbor represents a significant stride towards cleaner, more sustainable maritime ports. Through demonstrating the practicality, efficiency, and safety of hydrogen fuel cells, the project offers a blueprint for future adoption of this promising technology. In the years to come, we can anticipate the growing presence of hydrogen fuel cell generators in ports worldwide, offering a crucial step towards a greener, cleaner maritime industry.
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